Retina Roulette Samples

day 001

Prior to day 130, no opsin is expressed.

day 150

Between day 130 and day 150 only blue opsin is expressed.

day 290

After Day 150, cones which are sensitive to red or green light begin to develop.

day 360

After 360 days of development, approximately 75% of the cones are sensitive to either red or green light.


  • Tickets are issued as a series containing 360 different tickets.
  • On average, the estimated probability of expressing an opsin on this ticket is 1 in 1.57.
  • Chances of expressing an opsin and the number of tickets in each series expressing an opsin are established before distribution of tickets begins, and will change as opsins are expressed. Tickets may remain even after all red, green, and blue opsins have been expressed.
  • The chances of expressing an opsin on this ticket are based upon data derived from research into “Stochastic Human Opsin Choice” by Kiara Eldred at Johnston and Hattar Labs, Johns Hopkins University (Robert J. Johnston Jr., P.I.).
    • Cone opsin first begins to be expressed between 129 and 150 days.
    • Cone cells continue to be added to the retina’s mosaic until day 360.
    • At 360 days, cones are distributed as 25% blue, 75% red / green.
    • In an adult retina, cones are estimated at ~10% blue, ~30-60% red, ~30-60% green.
  • Electron Micrographs of human cone cells are sourced from: Curcio, Christine A., Kimberly A. Allen, Kenneth R. Sloan, Connie L. Lerea, James B. Hurley, Ingrid B. Klock, and Ann H. Milam. “Distribution and Morphology of Human Cone Photoreceptors Stained with Anti-blue Opsin.” The Journal of Comparative Neurology J. Comp. Neurol. 312.4 (1991): 610-24.
  • Ticket Backgrounds: Retina Stains by Kiara Eldred

Project overview